Marcus Aurelius was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 AD and a Stoic philosopher. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty, the last of the rulers later known as the Five Good Emperors and the last emperor of the Pax Romana, an age of relative peace, calm, and stability for the Roman Empire lasting from 27 BC to 180 AD. Resources on Marcus Aurelius (Roman Emperor). Marcus Aurelius is one of the most revered Roman emperors in history, known for his intellectual prowess; his personal writings on stoicism are considered some of the most comprehensive of all time. While not a notable Western philosopher, Marcus Aurelius’ contributions centered on bridging the gap between theory and practice, as he advocated utilizing stoic philosophical concepts as a practical guideline for happiness and fulfillment. He also successfully fended off Germanic Marcomanni and Quadi attacks along the northeastern borders of the empire, during which time he is thought to have written his meditations. While the Roman Empire might seem to be little more than a distant memory, the aforementioned emperors’ reigns contributed many foundational aspects to Western democracies and civilization, such as the concept of citizenship and definitions of the duties and rights of citizens. They reformed taxes to become more just, equitable and beneficial. They were able to contribute to architecture and built great monuments still revered today, and expanded the Roman Empire to include Romania, Britain and many other territories. Considering the full scope of modern society, it is difficult to pinpoint a field in which the Romans did not make a significant and lasting contribution. For this reason, students of history can benefit greatly from the in-depth study of Rome, its emperors and culture, and the ways in which the empire changed the course of human history.